Is-haaq (Isaac) & Ya'qub (Jacob) (pbuh)

The Prophets of Allah
based on the narrations by Ibn Kathir

The Story of Ishaaq (Isaac) and Yaqub (Jacob)

The Qur'an does not give details of Ishaaq's (Isaac's) life (PBUH), but reliable Qur'anic commentators mentioned that when Abraham felt that his life was drawing to a close, he wished to see Ishaaq (Isaac) married. He did not want Ishaaq (Isaac) to marry one of the Canaanites, who were pagans, so he sent a trustworthy servant to Haran in Iraq to choose a bride for Ishaaq (Isaac). The servant's choice fell on Rebekah Bint Bethuel, Ibn Nahor, who was a brother of Abraham. Ishaaq (Isaac) married her and she gave birth to a set of twins, Al-Eis (Esau) and Yaqub (Jacob).

Ill feelings developed between the two brothers when they grew into manhood. Al-Eis (Esau) disliked the fact that Yaqub (Jacob) was favoured by his father and by Allah with Prophethood. This ill-feeling became so serious that Al-Eis (Esau) threatened to kill his brother. Fearing for his life, Yaqub (Jacob) fled the country.

The People of the Book said that when Ishaaq (Isaac) was forty years old, he married Rebekah, Bint Bethuel, during his father's life. They said she was sterile, so Ishaaq (Isaac) prayed to Allah and then she became pregnant. She gave birth to twin boys. The first one was called Al-Eis (Esau). He became the father of Rum. The second one was called Yaqub (Jacob), which means Israel (belonging to the people of Israel).

The People of the Book claimed that when Ishaaq (Isaac) (PBUH) grew old and his eye-sight had weakened, he had a desire for food, so he asked his son Al-Eis (Esau) to go hunting and bring him some cooked game. Al-Eis (Esau) asked him to bless the food and pray for him. Al-Eis (Esau), a hunter, went out to get his father the meat. Rebekah, overhearing this, ordered her son Yaqub (Jacob) to slaughter two goats of his best flock and cook them as his father liked and bring it to him before his brother returned. She dressed Yaqub (Jacob) in his brother's clothes and put goat skin on his arms and neck, for Al-Eis (Esau) was hairy while Yaqub (Jacob) was not.

When he approached his father with the food, his father asked: "Who are you?" Yaqub (Jacob) answered: "I am your son." When his father finished eating, he prayed for his son to be the more blessed brother and to prevail over them and all people, and for Allah to sustain him and his children.

When he left his father, his brother Al-Eis (Esau), who had carried out his father's command, entered. Ishaaq (Isaac) asked him: "What is this, my son?" He answered: "This is the food you like." Ishaaq (Isaac) said: "Did you bring it an hour ago and ask me to pray for you?" Al-Eis (Esau) answered: "No, I swear I did not," and he knew his brother had preceded him in this matter and he was sick at heart.

The People of the Book said that Al-Eis (Esau) threatened to kill his brother when their father was dead. They also said that he asked his father to pray for him that Allah make the earth good for his offspring and multiply his sustenance and fruits.

When their mother knew that Al-Eis (Esau) threatened his brother Yaqub (Jacob), she commanded her son Yaqub (Jacob) to go to her brother Laban in the land of Haran and abide with him for a time until his brother's anger had abated, and to marry one of Laban's daughters. She told her husband Ishaaq (Isaac) to command him with that advice and pray for him, and he did.

Yaqub (Jacob) (PBUH) left his family. When night came he found a place to rest. He took a stone and put it under his head and slept. He dreamed of a ladder from heaven to earth. Angels were ascending and descending and the Lord addressed him and said to him: "I will bless you and your offspring and make this land for you and for those who come after you."

When he awoke he felt joyful from what he had seen in his dream and vowed, for Allah's sake, that if he returned to his family safely, he would build here a temple for Allah the Almighty. He also vowed to give one tenth of his property for the sake of Allah. He poured oil on the stone so as to recognise it and called the place "Ayle's House" (Bethel), which means "House of Allah." It was to be the location of Jerusalem later.

The People of the Book also said that when Yaqub (Jacob) came to his maternal uncle in the land of Haran, his uncle had two daughters. The elder one was called Lia (Leah) and the younger one was Rahil (Rachel). The latter was the better and lovelier of the two. His uncle agreed to marry his daughter to him on the condition that Yaqub (Jacob) pasture his sheep for seven years.

After a period of time, his uncle prepared a feast and gathered people for the wedding. He married Lia (Leah), his elder daughter, to him at night. She was weak-sighted and ugly. When morning came, Yaqub (Jacob) discovered that she was Lia (Leah) and he complained to his uncle: "You deceived me; I was engaged to Rahil (Rachel) and you married me to Lia (Leah)." His uncle said: "It is not our tradition to marry the younger daughter before the elder daughter. However, if you love her sister, work another seven years and I will marry you to both of them."

Yaqub (Jacob) worked for seven years and then married Rahil (Rachel). It was acceptable in their time, as described in the Torah, for a man to marry two sisters. Laban gave a female slave to each daughter. Lia's (Leah's) slave was called Zilpah and Rahil's (Rachel's) slave was called Bilha.

Almighty Allah compensated Lia's (Leah's) weakness by giving her sons. The first one was named Robel (Reuben), after whom there were Shamun (Simeon), Lawi (Levi), and Yahudh (Judah). Rahil (Rachel) felt jealous of Lia's (Leah's) having sons, as she was barren. She gave her slave Bilha to her husband and he had relations with her until she became pregnant. She gave birth to a son and named him Naphtali.

Lia (Leah) was vexed that Rahil's (Rachel's) slave had given birth to a son, so she, in turn, gave her slave Zilpah to Yaqub (PBUH). Zilpah gave birth to two sons, Gad and Asher. Then Lia (Leah) got pregnant and gave birth to her fifth son, Isakher (Isssachar), and later she gave birth to a sixth son, Zablun (Zebulun). After this Lia's (Leah's) gave birth to a daughter named Dinah. Thus, Lia's (Leah's) had seven sons from Yaqub (Jacob).

Then Rahil (Rachel) prayed to Allah to give her a son from Yaqub (Jacob). Allah heard her call and responded to her prayer. She gave birth to a son, great, honorable, and beautiful. She named him Yusuf (Joseph).

All of this happened when they were in the land of Haran and Yaqub (Jacob) (PBUH) was pasturing his uncle's sheep, which he did for a period of twenty years.
Yaqub (Jacob) then asked his uncle Laban to let him go and visit his family. His uncle said to him: "I have been blessed because of you; ask for whatever money you need." Yaqub (Jacob) said: "Give me each spotted and speckled goat born this year and each black lamb."

But at Laban's command his sons removed their father's goats that were striped, spotted or speckled, and the black lambs, lest others should be born with those traits. They walked for three days with their father's goats and sheep while Yaqub (Jacob) tended the remaining flock.

The People of the Book said that Yaqub (Jacob) (PBUH) took fresh rods of poplar, almond and plane. He peeled streaks in them and cast them into the water troughs for the goats to look at. The young inside their abdomens were terrified and moved and they were born striped, spotted, or speckled. When the sheep were breeding, he set their faces towards the black sheep in Laban's flock and put the rods among them. Their lambs were born black. This was considered an example of supernatural powers, a miracle. Yaqub (Jacob) had many goats, sheep, beast and slaves. His uncle and his sons faces changed as if they (the sheep and goats) had been stolen from them.

Allah the Almighty inspired Yaqub (Jacob) to return to the country of his father and people, and He promised to stand by him. Yaqub (Jacob) told his family that, and they responded and obeyed him. Yaqub (Jacob) did not tell Laban of his plans, however, and left without bidding farewell.

Upon leaving, Rahil (Rachel) stole her father's idols. After Yaqub (Jacob) and his people had fled for his country, Laban and his people followed them. When Laban met with Yaqub (Jacob), he blamed him for leaving him without his knowledge. He would have liked to know so that he could have made them leave with celebration and joy, with drums and songs, and so that he could have bidden his daughters and sons farewell. And why had they taken his idols with them?

Yaqub (Jacob) had no knowledge of his idols, so he denied that he had taken them from him. Then Laban entered the tents of his daughters and slaves to search, but he found nothing, for Rahil (Rachel) had put the idols in the camel saddle under her. She did not get up, apologizing that she had her menses. Thus, he could not perceive what they had done-.

Then they sat on a hill called Galeed and made a covenant there. Yaqub (Jacob) would not ill-treat Laban's daughters nor marry others. Neither Laban nor Yaqub (Jacob) would pass the hill into the other's country. They cooked food and their people ate with them. Each bade the other farewell as they departed, each returning to his own country.

When Yaqub (Jacob) approached the land of Seir, the angels greeted him. He sent a messenger ahead with greetings to his brother Al-Eis (Esau), asking forgiveness and humbling himself before him. The messenger returned greetings and told Yaqub (Jacob) that Al-Eis (Esau) was riding towards him with four hundred men.

This made Yaqub (Jacob) afraid and he entreated and prayed to Allah Almighty. He prostrated in humiliation and asked Him to fulfill His promise which He had made before. He asked Him to stop the evil of his brother Al-Eis (Esau). Then Yaqub (Jacob) (PBUH) prepared a great present for his brother: two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty much camels, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys.

He commanded his slaves to take the animals, each drove by itself, and pass on ahead of him with a space between the droves. He instructed them: "When you meet my brother Al-Eis (Esau) he will ask you, 'To whom do you belong? Where are you going?' You shall say, 'They belong to your servant Yaqub (Jacob); they are a present to my master Al-Eis (Esau). Moreover, he is behind us."

Yaqub (Jacob) stayed behind with his two wives, his slaves and his children for two nights, then continued walking by night and resting by day.

When the dawn of the second day came one of the angels appeared in the shape of a man. Yaqub (Jacob) began to wrestle with him. They were neck and neck until the angel injured his thigh and Yaqub (Jacob) became lame. When the day was breaking, the angel said to him: "What is your name?" He answered: "Yaqub (Jacob)." The angel said: "After today you shall not be called (anything) but Israel." Yaqub (Jacob) asked: "And who are you? What is your name?" He vanished. Then Yaqub (Jacob) knew that he was one of the angels. Yaqub (Jacob) was lame, and for this reason the children of Israel do not eat the thigh muscle on the hip socket.

Yaqub (Jacob) raised his eyes and saw his brother Al-Eis (Esau) coming. Yaqub (Jacob) prostrated seven times before him, for it was their salutation in that time. It was lawful for them just as the angels had prostrated in salutation to Adam.

When Al-Eis (Esau) saw him, he ran towards him, embraced and kissed him and wept. When Al-Eis (Esau) raised his eyes and saw the women and children, he asked: "Who are these with you?" Yaqub (Jacob) answered: "Those whom Allah has given me, your servant." Lia (Leah), Rahil (Rachel), their slaves, and all the children approached and prostrated before him. Yaqub (Jacob) asked Al-Eis (Esau) to accept his gift and insisted until he did so.

Al-Eis (Esau) returned and went in advance before him. Yaqub (Jacob) and his family followed with the flocks and herds and slaves to the mountains (Seir).

When he came to Sahur (Succoth), he built a house for himself and shades for his beasts. Then he passed by Jerusalem, the village of Shechem, and camped before the village. He bought a farm from Shechem Ibn Hamor with one hundred goats and built an altar, which he called Ayl, as Allah commanded him. He built the altar where Jerusalem stands today and later Sulaiman (Solomon) son of Dawud (David) (PBUT) rebuilt it. It is in the place of the stone which he had earlier anointed with oil, as was mentioned before.

The People of the Book tell a story of Dinah, daughter of Yaqub (Jacob) and Lia (Leah). Shechem Ibn Hamor seized her and lay with her by force. Then he asked her father and brothers to let him marry her. Her brothers said: "Circumcise, all of you, and we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves; but we do not marry with uncircumcised people." They (the men of the city) agreed to that, and all of them were circumcised. When the third day came and the pain from the circumcision had increased, Yaqub's (Jacob's) sons approached and killed them till the last one. They killed Shechem and his father for the evil they had committed against them and for their worship of idols. That is why Yaqub's (Jacob's) sons killed them and seized their money as spoils.

Then Rahil (Rachel) got pregnant and gave birth to a son, Benjamin, but she had a hard labor and died after delivery. Yaqub's (Jacob's) buried her in Ephrath (Afrath). The tomb of Rahil (Rachel) is there till the present day.

Yaqub's (Jacob's) sons were twelve men. From Lia (Leah) there were Robil (Reuben), Shamun (Simeon), Lewi (Lavi), Yahudh (Judah), Isakher (Issachar), and Zablun (Zebulun). From Rahil (Rachel) there were Yusuf (Joseph) (PBUH) and Benjamin. From Rahil's (Rachel's) slave there were Dan and Neftali (Naphtali), and from Lia's (Leah's) slave there were Gad and Asher.

Yaqub (Jacob) came to his father Ishaaq (Isaac) and settled with him in the village of Hebron which lies in the land of Canaan where Ibrahim (Abraham) had lived. Then Ishaaq (Isaac) fell ill and died when he was one hundred eighty years old. His sons Al-Eis (Esau) and Yaqub (Jacob), buried him with his father Ibrahim (Abraham) Al-Khalil in a cave which he had bought. It was said that Ibrahim (Abraham) died at the age of one hundred seventy-five.

Allah the Almighty declared in the Glorious Qur'an: «And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

When his Lord said to him: "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said: "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists)."

And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was unjoined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Yaqub, (saying): "O my Sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islam (as Muslims - Islamic Monotheism)."

Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub? When he said unto his sons: "What will you worship after me?" They said: "We shall worship your Ilah (God -Allah) the Ilah (God) of your fathers, Ibrahim, Isma'il, Ishaaaq, One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam)."

That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

And they say: "Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided." Say (to them, O Muhammad): "Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Abraham, Hanifan [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone),] and he was not of Al-Mushrikeen (those who worshiped others along with Allah.)"

Say (O Muslims): "We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrahim, Isma'il, Ishaaq, Yaqub, and to Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Yaqub), and that which has been given to Musa and Isa, and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam)."

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And he is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

[Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (religion) of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allah's. And we are His worshipers.

Say (O Muhammad, to the Jews and Christians): "Dispute you with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders.)." Or say you that Ibrahim, Isma'il, Ishaaq, Yaqub and Al-Asbat (the twelve Sons of Jacob) were Jews or Christians? Say: "Do you know better or does Allah (know better . . . that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad when he comes, written in their books] he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do."» Surah 2: 130-140

In another surah Almighty Allah declared: «O People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim, while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him? Have you then no sense? Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that which you have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.

Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism, - to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of the polytheists (i.e. he joined none in worship with Allah).

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers. » Surah 3: 65-68

Allah the Exalted also affirmed: «Then, verily! Your Lord- for those who do evil (commit sins and are disobedient to Allah) in ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds, verily, your Lord thereafter, (to such) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all the good righteous qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanifan (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikeen (polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah). (He was) thankful for His (Allah's) Graces. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a Straight Path (Islamic Monotheism, neither Judaism or Christianity). And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.
Then, We have inspired you (O Muhammad saying): "Follow the religion of Ibrahim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism - to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikeen (i.e. polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad, those who worship others along with Allah or set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah.]"»
Surah 16: 119-123.