Islamic Vocabulary

'adab (n) Islamic manners and behavior
'aqidah: (n) belief or creed
'adl (n) 1). Justice; 2). righteous conduct
ahad (a) singular; a hadith whose narrators do not reach anywhere near the number for the mutawatir(continuous) hadith.
Ahkâm : "Orders". According to Islamic Law, there are five kinds of orders : 1. Compulsory (Wajib) 2. Order without obligation (Mustahab) 3. Forbidden (Muharram) 4. Disliked but not forbidden (Makruh) 5. Legal and allowed (Halâl)
Al – Quthum Allah’s Messenger (saas), the best of creation, one who has all good virtues and characteristics gathered together in him
Akhirah the Hereafter; the life beyond this transitory one
Bid'ah: Innovation in the creed or in acts of worship
Dabt: (n) strong retentive memory; a necessary characteristic of the transmitters of Traditions
Da’if (a) weak; a characterization of hadith in which there is some defect either in the chain of transmission or in perfect agreement with beliefs and practices
Fitnah: (n) temptation, discord, civil war, trial
Fitra: nature of humans as created by humans as created by Allah(swt)
Hadith (pl: ahadith): the recorded teachings, sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad (saas) which explain and interpret the Qur’anic verses and Message of Islam
Hadiyyah: (n) gift
Hajj: (n) the pilgrimmage to Makkah; one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Hasan (a) the Good; a categorization of hadith similar to sahih except that some of its narrators are found to have defective memories in comparison to sahih narrators
Hasad: envy
Haya: an attitude and behavior in which all indecency is avoided, therefore acting as a preventive measure against numberous sins; as such it serves to strengthen faith
Hijrah: (n) emigration; the hijrah to Madinah from Makkah took place in 622 a.d.
Hikmah (n) 1). Wisdom; 2). The Wisdom, the Qur’anic term for the Sunnah of Rasullah (saas)
Hilm: Self- restraint
Hukm/ahkam (n) a legal judgement, an ordinance, a decree; a verdict
Ibadat: (n) acts of workship; a comprehensive word comprising deeds and words that Allah loves and is pleased with whether manifested or hidden; There are two conditions of Ibadah: 1. Sincerity to Allah, 2. Submission to Allah's Messenger i.e. to act according to his Sunnah. Some types of Ibadah are the prayers, the obligatory charity,fasting, the pilgrimage, fear of Allah, hope in His Mercy, Seeking His aid. and other acts of worship which Allah has commanded and enjoined.
Ihsân : The highest level of deeds and worship, (perfection i.e. when you worship Allah or do deeds, consider yourself as if you see Him and if you cannot achieve this feeling or attitude, then you must bear in mind that He sees you).
Ijtihad: Intellectual effort of Muslim jurists to reach independent religio- legal decisions, a key feature of modern Islamic reform; one who exercises ijtihad is a mujtahid
Ikhlas: extreme sincerity
‘Ilm: Knowledge
Isnad: (n) the chain of transmitter through whom the hadith was transmitted
Isharat: signs of the Last Day
Jami’: (n) a comprehensive and inclusive reference book of hadith
Jihad: (n) striving in the way Allah (swt) 'We are a people of Jihad. Struggling for the cause of Allah (SWT) to bring down barriers of injustice that deprives humanity from realizing their true potential which is to be slaves to Allah (SWT).
Karam: Generousity
Kibar/kibr: (n) false pride
Kitab: (n) 1). Book; 2). The Book of Allah (swt) (Al- Quran)
Khutbah: (n) sermon
Khalifah: (n) caliph
Kufr: (n) denial of the Truth of Allah (swt) disbelief
Manaqib: (n) virtues, outstanding traits; feats, exploits
Mujahid: (n) warrior; one who strives through jihad
Matn: (n) the text and content of hadith
Mawdu:  (a) fabricated; an untue hadith which has been fabricated Muhajir (pl muhajirun): (n) 1). Emigrant 2). One who gives up what Allah has prohibited (Bukhari)
Muhrim One who assumes the state of Ihram for the purpose of performing the Hajj or 'Umra.
Mursal: a hadith in which a tabi’I (successor) transmits from Rasullah (saas) directly
Musnad: (n) collection in which Traditions are arranged according to the names of the Sahabah
Muntaq’I: a hadith going back to the successor only
Mu’ dal a hadith in which two continuous links are missing in one or more places from the isnad
Mu’ allaq      a hadith collection, which includes Traditions neglected by earlier compilers
Mustakhraj:          (n) a work in which later scholars revise works of the early major scholars and add to them additional commentaries.
Muttafaqun ‘ alai-hi (a) agreed upon; any hadith which is tranmitted by Bukahri and Muslim
Mutawtir: (a) continuous; a hadith reported by a large number of people in different times, to make it impossible for any falsehood to enter it. It is reported by a large number of narrators whose agreement upon a lie is inconceivable. This condition must be met in the entire chaing from origin of the report to the end.
Mu’jam (n) a type of collection sometimes arranged according to alphabetical order
Qadar believe that everything — good or bad — happens or takes place according to what Allah has ordained for it. He has created everything in due proportion
Qudsi tradition: a hadith directly inspired by Allah (swt)
Rahmah: Mercy for Humans and Animals
Rifq: kindness
Sabr: (n) to exercise self-control; will power; control over animal desires; patience; constancy
Sadaqah: (n) spending voluntarily in the cause of Allah (swt)
Sadaqah jariyah (n) recurring charity
Sakina: a divine tranquility that is believed to descend when the Qur’an is recited
Sunnah (n) 1). A practice, a way, a rule, a precedent; a manner of life; 2). Traditions and practices of the Prophet (saw) used as a complement to the Qur’an in understanding the laws of Allah
Sahih: (a) the name given to the absolutely correct hadith in which there is no weakness and all the transmitters are proven to have possessed both ‘adl and dabt
Sawm: (n) fasting
Sirah/siyar: (n) conduct, deportment, behavior, way of actiing
Shahid: (n) martyr
Shirk: Allah in His acts i.e. ascribing partners or setting up rivals to Allah in His rights.There are three types of polytheism: 1). The greater polytheism (Shirk Akbar). 2). The lesser polytheism (Shirk Asghar). 3). The inconspicuous polytheism (Shirk Khafi).
Shirk Akbar devote any form of worship to other than Allah. Allah will never forgive one who dies upon Shirk,nor accept his good deeds, and he would be cast out from the folds of Islam.There are four types of greater polytheism: 1). The polytheism in invocation i.e. involving supplications to other than Allah. 2). The polytheism in intentions i.e. purpose and intentions not for the sake of Allah but directed towards other deities. 3). The polytheism in obedience i.e. rendering obedience to any authority against the Order of Allah. 4). The potytheism in love i.e showing love to others which is due to Allah Alone.
Shirk Asghar The lesser polytheism is that means the acts of worship done to gain praise or fame rather than to please Allah, this type of polytheism, however, does not cast the person committing it out of the fold of Islam.
Shirk Khafi The inconspicuous polytheism implies being dissatisfied with the conditions ordained by Allah.The proof of the above Shirk is the saying of the Prophet “The inconspicuous polytheism is more hidden among this nation than the track of a black ant over a black stone on a dark night” (Musnad Ahmad)
Sirât: originally means 'a road'; it also means the bridge that will be laid across Hell-Fire for the people to pass over on the Day of Judgement. It is described as sharper than a sword and thinner than a hair. It will have hooks over it to snatch the people
Suffah: (n) the first Islamic University, established in the mosque of the Prophet (saw)
Tafsir (n) exegesis or explanation into a subject (such as the Qur’an)
Tabi’I (n) one who follows; those who succeeded the Sahabah
Taghut Everything that is worshipped or followed or obeyed other than Allah is Taghut. They are many but their leaders are Five: 1). Satan, may Allah curse him, 2). Anyone who is worshipped with his consent. 3). A person who calls the people to be worshipped instead of Allah. 4). A person who claims the knowledge of Ghaib (unseen, hidden, invisible, absent etc). 5). The ruler who rules by laws other than the law sent down by Allah.
Tarbiyah: cultivation and education
Tasfiyah: cleansing and purification
Tauhid declaring Allah to be the only God who deserves to be worshipped in truth and confirming all attributes with which He has qualified Himself or that are attributed to Him by His Messenger . There are three aspects of Tauhid: 1- Tauhid-ar-Rububiyah. 2- Tauhid-al-Uluhiyah, 3-Tauhid-al-Asma was-Sifat.
Tauhid-ar-Rububiyah It is declaring Allah to be One and Unique in His work, Iike creation, sustenance, bringing to life and causing death etc.
Tauhid-al-Uluhiyah It is declaring Allah as the Only God to whom all acts worship must be dedicated such salat (prayers), Zakat, Sawm(fasting), supplications vowing etc.
Tauhid-al-Asma was-Sifat It is an affirmation of all the Given Names and Attributes of Allah in a manner that    suits His Majesty, as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
Taqlid: Adoption and imitation of traditional legal decisions. Criticized by reform-minded legal thinkers as blind imitation – opposite of ijitihad
Tawadu’ humility
Tawakkul: Trust in Allah (swt)
Tilawa: Ritual recitation of the Qur’an
Ulama’ (sing‘alim) (n) those learned in Islam
Ummah (n) the Muslim community
Wudu’ (n) ablution; a special ritual of washing which precedes the Islamic prayers
Zakah: (n) the mandatory giving of alms or charity to the poor; it is calculated as two and a half percent of the one’s annual savings; one of the Five Pillars of Islam