Allah is the light of Heavens and the Earth. The likeness of His light is as if there were a niche and in the niche is a lamp and in the lamp is a glass and the glass as it were a shining star, from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil is well nigh luminous though fire has scarcely touched it. Light upon light. Allah guides the one He wants to His light. And Allah strikes metaphors for mankind, and Allah is the Knower of all things. (This lamp is found) in houses which Allah has allowed to be exalted so that His Name shall be remembered therein. Therein He is glorified in the morning and in the evening. An-Nur (24):35-36.

RA: See Radia’llahu ‘Anhu.

RA’D (AR): "The thunder". Surah 13 of the Holy Qur’an.

RADIA’LLAH ‘ANHU/‘ANHA: May Allah be pleased with him or her. This term is most commonly used whenever the name of a Sahabi (a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, amy Allah bless him and grant him peace) is mentioned, Radia’llahu Anhum, may Allah be pleased with them.

RAAB: Lord, Master, Owner. Allah Ta’ala is the "Rabbil ‘Alameen", the Lord of the Worlds.

RABBIL-’ALAMEEN: Title of Allah Ta’ala. Lord of all creation. Literally means "Lord of the Worlds", both in the Seen and in the Unseen.

RABBAK: Your Lord. Your Master. See Rabb.

RABI’ AL-AWAL: The third month of the Islamic Calendar. See Hijri.

RAFI’AH KHAFIDA: That which will raise the lowly, and humble the proud, on the Day of Judgement.

RAHEEM (AR): "Ar-Raheem". Most Merciful. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. It is said that the Attributes of Ar-Raheem consists of the mercy of Allah that is only experienced by the Muslims, whereas the Attributes of Ar-Rahman consist of the mercy of Allah that is experienced by the whole creation. For example, all creatures are fed until they die, but only the Muslims experience the reward of breaking the fast at the end of each day of Ramadan, and the reward of meeting the Lord in the next world. See Rahman (ar).

RAHIB: A man who lives in a monastery, a Christian monk.

RAHIM: Blood relations. It is extremely important for Muslims to keep in contact with their blood relatives. In a Hadith Qudsi Allah Ta’ala vowed by His Might and sublimity that He would cut off the person who cuts off his blood relative.

RAHMAN (AR): "Ar-Rahman". Most Gracious, Merciful. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. Surah 55 of the Holy Qur’an. This is Surah is referred to as "The Bride of the Holy Qur’an".

RAHMAT ALLAH: The Mercy of Allah. It comes from one of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala - Ar-Rahman, The Merciful. See Raheem (ar).

RAIHAN: A sweet-smelling flower.

RAJAB: The seventh month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri

RAJFA: Violent earthquake. See Holy Qur’an, Al-A’raf (7):155.

RAJM (AR): Stoning. In Islamic law the Hadd punishment for whoever is married and commits adultery is to be stoned to death.

RAK’AT: A unit of the Salat (Prayer), a complete series of standing, bowing, two prostatrations and sittings. Plural: Rak’at.

RAMADAN: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is very important month in the Islamic world. (1.) It is month of fasting, during which all adults Muslims who are in good helath fast from the first light of dawn until sunset each day. During the first third of the fast you taste Allah’s mercy; during the second third you taste Allah’s forgiveness; and during the last third you taste freedom from the Fire. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):185. (2.) It is the month in which the revelation of the Holy Qur’an to our Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commenced. (3.) The Lailatul Qadr (see Qadr, Lailatul) occurs in this month. (4.) The famous Battle of Badr was fought and won in this month. (5.) The Conquest of Makka by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took place in this month.

RAMAL: Hastening, walking brisky and moving the shoulders brisky; usually done by men (only) in the first three circuits of the Tawaf, but not in the remaining four.

RAMI: The act of throwing seven pebbles at each of the three Jamras, representing Iblis (Satan), at Mina. See Jamrat al-’Aqaba.

RASOOL: Messnger. A prophet of Allah Ta’ala who came with a pure revelation from Allah to mankind and the Jinn. For a complete list of the messengers and prophets referred to in the Qur’an: See Rusull.

RAWI: A narrator of Ahadeeth.

REA’ (SHIRK AL): A minor Shirk. Carrying out a religious act of worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praise. See Shirk.

RIBA: Usury. Usury is of two kinds. (1.) Riba Nasi’a - taking interest on loaned money. (2.) Riba Fadal - taking something of superior quality in exchange for giving less of the same kind of thing of poorer quality. Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala has strictly forbidden any kind of Riba and has warned of severe punishment to those who have any association with it. This is because all Riba involves getting something for nothing at someone else’s expense, and is destructive. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):275-280, Aali ‘Imran (3):130.

RIDA: A cloth that is worn on the upper part of the body.

RIDWAN, PEACE BE ON HIM: Name of the angel who is keeper of the Gate of Jannah (Paradise). Literally means "Allah’s Good Pleasure".

RISALLAH: Letter. Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent many messengers with letters to various leaders of the world inviting them to Islam. For example of such letters:

RIWAYAAT: Narrations of Ahadeeth.

RIZQ: Provision. Sustenance. Is derived from the word "Al-Razaq". The Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala.

ROOH: Spirit. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hijr (15):29, Al-Isra (17):85-86, Al-Mujadilah (58):22, Al-Ma’arif (70):4. An-Naba’ (78):38, Al-Qadr (97):4.

ROOH AL-QUDUS: The Holy Spirit. Another name for the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him. His duty was to communicate between Allah and His prophets. Allah Ta’ala strengthened the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, with Holy Spirit (Al-Baqara (2):87, 253). This is one of the reasons why the Nasara (Chirstians) believe that the Prophet Jesus was divine. If Jesus was Allah, then why did he need strengthening? They also believed that the Holy Spirit was divine. If the Holy Spirit was Allah, then how was He sent and by whom? Who has the power to command Allah to go anywhere? Glory be to Allah, the Most high. Surely they disbelieve who say that Allah has associate.

ROOHU’LLAH: According to the Ulamaa min as-Sahaba (the people of knowledge from among the companions of t he Prophet, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, and their students), the Roohu’llah can be considered in two distinct and different ways: The Created - what belongs to Allah: i.e. Allah’s slave, Allah’s House, Allah’s soul (i.e. soul created by Allah). Consider the creation of Adam and the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son Mary), peace be on them. Allah said "Be" and they were created. The Creator - Who is neither a person nor a thing : e.g. Allah’s statements (Kalimatu’llah), Allah’s knowledge (‘Ilmu’llah). Allah says in the Qur’an: "Say: ‘The spirit is by command of my Lord, and you have only been given a little knowledge." Holy Qur’an, Al-sara (17):85.)

ROOM (AL): "The Romans". Surah 30 of the Holy Qur’an.

RUBUBIYAH (TAWHEED AL): Unity of Lordship, To believe that there is only one Lord, the Master and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. See Tawheed.

RUKN: Pillar. Singular of Arkan. See Arkan.

RUKU: The Bowing position during the Salat (Prayer).

RUQBA: A gift of a house given to somebody to live for as long as they live, after which it is returned.

RUQYA: Divine words, usually from the Holy Qur’an, used as a recitation to cure an illness or a disease.

RUSHD: Right conduct and correct behavior.

RUSULL: Messengers. All messengers are prophets, but not all prophets are messengers. The Holy Qur’an mentions twenty-five Prophets, amongst whom are six messengers: (1.) Nooh (Noah). (2.) Ibrahim (Abraham). (3.) Dawood (David). (4.) Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus, son of Mary). (5.) Muhammad May the blessings and peace of Allah be on all the Prophets and messengers, on those who are known and those who are not known, and on all their sincere followers in every age. Singular: Rasool.



Think not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are living, with their Lord, and they have provision. Aali ‘Imran (3):169

Who does greater wrong than he who invents a lie concerning Allah or denies Our signs? What has been allotted to such people from the Book (of Destiny) will come to them until, when our messengers (angels) come to take their souls, they (the angels) will say: "Where (now) is whatever you used to pray to instead of Allah" They (the unbelievers) will say: "They have deserted us." And they will testify against themselves that they were disbelievers. Al-’Araf (7):37.

And Whoever opposes the Messengers after the guidance (of Allah) was made clear to him, and follows other than the way of the believers, we appoint for him that to which he himself has turned, and expose him to Hell, a terrible journey’s end! An-Nisaa (4):115

SAW: See Sallallahu ‘Alaihe wa Sallam.

SA’D IBN MU’AZ: Chief of the Aus tribe, who later came to be known as the Ansar. He died a Shaheed (martyr) as a result of a wound he received in the Battle of Khandaq (also known as the Battle of Al-Ahzab).

SA'I: Going seven times between the small hills of Safa and Marwa;one of the essential rights of both the hajj and Umra.See Safa and Marwa.

SA’ID: Blessed in the sight of Allah, as opposed to Shaqi, which means wretched. See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):105.

SA’IR: The third level of Hellfire. It is reserved for the worshippers of fire. See Jahannam.

SAABIA: Worshippers of the stars, moons and other heavenly bodies. Originally the people of Sabaa, the Queen of Sheeba.

SAAD: "Saad". Surah 38 of the Holy Qur’an.

SAB’A AL-MATHANI: Another name for Surat al-Fatiha. Literally means "The Seven Often Recited Verse". Every Muslim recites Surat al-Fatiha at least seventeen times every day, and some a good deal more.

SAB’A TUWAAL: The first seven long Suwar of the Holy Qur’an.

SAB’AA (AS): An easterly wind.

SABAA: "Sabaa". City of Sheeba in Yemen. A city of the king and Prophet Sulaiman, peace be on him, and the Queen of Sheeba, Bilqis. Surah 34 of the Holy Qur’an. See Qur’an, An-Naml (27):15-44.

SABEEL: (1). Road, path, way, a means to an end. (2). "Fee Sabeeli’llah". In the path of Allah or in the cause of Allah.

SABIQOON: ‘Those who outstrip the rest, in the race to draw near to the mercy and blessings and love of Allah. See Muqarraboon. SABR: Patience and perseverance. Allah Ta’ala has promised "Falaah" (success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):200.

SADAQA: (1. Anything given away in charity for the pleasure of Allah. 2. One of the eight gates of Jannah. See Jannah.

SAFA: A small hill in Makka to the east Al-Masjid al-Haram. The Hujjaj must walk seven times between the two small hills of Safa and Marwa. This is called Sa’i.

SAFA AND MARWA: Two small hills in Makkah, in Al-Haram as-Shareef (the Grand Masjid) to the east. It is an essential part of an Umra and the Hajj to walk seven times between the two places, quickening one’s step briefly between them . This is called Sa’i. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):158.

SAFAHA: "He forgave". Forgiving in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. See Maghfira.

SAFF (AS): "The Battle Ranks". Surah 61 of the Holy Qur’an.

SAFFAAT (AS): "Those Ranged in Ranks". Surah 37 of the Holy Qur’an.

SAFFAH: A raised platform. A verandah attached to the Prophet’s Mosque in Madina where poor Muslims, including some of his most exalted companions, used to sleep, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.

SAGHIR (AL): Minor sins committed by Ins wal-Jinn (mankind and Jinn) against Allah Ta’ala.

SAHABI: Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Sahabiyeen.

SAHABIYEEN: The companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him, his family and his companions. Singular: Sahabi.

SAHIH: Healthy and sound with not defects. Authentic, as regards Ahadeeth, such as Sahi Bukhari and Sahi Muslim.

SAHIH BUKHARI: A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari.

SAHIH MUSLIM: A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslims.

SAHU: Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or substracts from what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu.

SAIYID: Master. It is a title given to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family.

SAIYIDINA: Our master. This usually refers to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but may also be used when mentioning the name of any prophet of Allah Ta’ala.

SAIYIDUL ANBIYAA WAL MURSALEEN: "The Master of all Prophets and Apostle". This is the title of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He is also called: 1). Imamul Mursaleen - the leader of all Prophets. 2). Ashraful Mursaleen - the Most Honoured amongst all the Prophets.

SAJDA (AS): 1). Prostration. The act of making prostration, particularly in the Salat (prayer). 2). "The Prostration". Surah 32 of the Holy Qur’an. It is so called because it contains a verse (verse 15) whereby, if one hears it being recited, one must prostrate. There are fifteen such Ayat (verse) in the Holy Qur’an. One should be in Ghusl and in Wudu when in Sajda. Plural: Sujud.


SAKARAT AL-MAUT: The ‘drunkenness’ of death. There are three signs which indicate that the person who is suffering the pangs of death is a believer: 1. Sweating on the forehead. 2. Tears appear in the eyes. 3. The nostrils dilate. Likewise, the three signs of a disbeliever next to death are: 1. Irregular breathing. 2. Changing Colour. 3. Frothing at the mouth.

SAKINA: Calm, peaceful tranquility, perfect calmness, serenity, due to the Presence of Allah being made clear and apparent. See Holy Qur’an, At-Taubah (9):26, 40, Al-Fath (48):4, 18, 26.

SALAAM: 1. Synonym of Salaf. See Salaf. 2. Peace, peace of the body and soul in all aspects. See Holy Qur’an, Mariam (19):62.

SALAF: A price paid for goods to be delivered later.

SALAFI: Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the companions of the messengers of Allah and those who followed them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous companions of Muhammad.

SALAFIYEEN AS-SALIHEEN (AS): All the righteous companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad who followed the Holy Prophet in all that he did and said, without any deviation or misinterpretation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them.

SALAT: 1. Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers in Islam, consisting of fixed sets of standings, bowings, prostrations and sitting in worship to Allah. These are called Rak’at. The number of Rak’at in each prayer and their timings are: i. Fajr - dawn - two Rak’at. ii. Duhr - Noon - four Rak’at. iii. ‘Asr - Afternoon - four Rak’at. iv- Maghreb - sunset - three Rak’at. v. Isha - late evening - four Rak’at. These five Salat are one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See Nafilah. 2. One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.

SALATUD-DUHA: A Nafl Salat that is prayed after sunrise and before noon.

SALATUL-JANAZA: Funeral Prayer. It is permitted to do salatul Janaza only over the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It contains four Takbirs: 1. After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua’a for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but it is preferred to do the Tashahud (see Tashahhud) and the Salat al-Ibrahimiya: "Allahumma Alle ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala alee Muhammad kama Salaita Ibrahim wa ‘ala Ibrahim; fill ‘alameen innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma barak ‘ala Muhammad wa’ala alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa’ala alee Ibrahim; fill ‘alameen innaka hamidun majeed." (O" Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim and the Family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah, give Muhammad blessing and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy, Glorious.") 3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people in general. 4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of salat. Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu Alaykum warahmatullah" ("Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah").

SALATUL-SHURUQ: A Nafl Salat of four Rak’at that is prayed a short while after sunrise.

SALATUL-TASBIH: A special Nafl Salat of four Rak’at. This Salat involves praising Allah Ta’ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdu lillah, wa la ilaha illalah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and praise to Allah, and there is no God except Allah and Allah is Greatest") seventy-five times in each Rak’a.

SALB: The belongings of person killed in battle; e.g. his weapons, horse, motorbike, etc.

SALEH, PEACE BE ON HIM: A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Thumud who lived in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula. They were destroyed for rejecting him. The remains of their stone dwellings still exist today. See Holy Qur’an, Al-’Araf (7):73-79, At-Tawbah (11):61-68, Ash-Shu’ara (26):141-159, An-Naml.

SALAH: Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound body and soul.

SALLAHU ‘ALAIHE WA SALLAM: May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. This is said whenever the name or title of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is mentioned or read.

SALMAN AL-FARISI: A famous Persian Muslim who helped to defend Madina from the pagan Quraish tribe in the months of Shawal and Dhu’l-Qa’da in 5AH by suggesting that the Muslims dig a trench around the unprotected parts. This battle came to be known as the Battle of Khandaq (Trench), or the Battle of Al-Ahzab (the Clans), See Holy Qur’an, Al-Ahzab (33):9-22. Prior to his accepting Islam, Salman al-Farisi had first embraced Judaism and then Christianity. He spent his life in search for knowledge and found it with the Prophet whose coming he had learned about from the Jews and the Christians of that time, Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him.

SALSABIL: A Fountain in Jannahy. Literally means "Seek the way". See Holy Qur’an, Al-Insan (76):18.

SALSAEEL, PEACE BE ON HIM: Name of the special angel who takes the souls of the Mu’minoon (the believers) wrapped in silk through the Seven heavens and presents them to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala before returning them to their bodies and prior to putting them in their graves.

SAMAA: Heaven. In the sense of ‘Sky’. "Sab’a Samawat" - Seven Heavens. Plural: Samawat.

SAMAD (AS): Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word or words that indicate the meaning are: 1. Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting". 2. The One toWhom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not depending on anything or anyone for any need. 3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. For a complete list:

SAMAWAT: Heavens. "Sab’a Samawat" - Seven Heavens, Singular: Sama.

SAQAR: The fourth Level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is where the atheists will be sent on the Day of Judgement. See Jahannam.

SARIYA: A small army sent by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peae, for a Jihad in which he did not personally take part.

SAYDD: Hunting for game. In Islam it is permitted to hunt game, provided that the hunting and killing of the game is done within the Shari’ah law. Saydd is prohibitted within the sacred precincts of the Haramiain. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Maidah (5):97-99:

SEEAAM: Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if you are married - during daylight, from the first light of dawn until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in themonth of Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta’ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or Woman, with the exception of: 1.A person who is ill. 2. A person on a journey of 16 Farsakhs (48 Miles) or more. 3. A Woman who is menstruating or who has just given brith. Once these situations no longer apply, the missed days must be compensated. The very young are exempted. The aged should fast, but if they find it difficult then they too are exempted and may feed poor people instead. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):184-185, 187.

SHA’BAN: the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. See Hijri.

SHAAM: Territory north of Arabia which is now divided into Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan.

SHAFAA’A: Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta’ala, through His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given leave to intercede: 1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets. 2. The Ulama - the people of knowledge from amongst the Muslims. 3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause of Allah Ta’ala.

SHAHADA: 1. To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain. 2. To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There will be four witness on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day of Reckoning): i. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Muslim Ummah against all the other Ummahs (communities and nations). ii. The earth and the day and the night will be given the power to speak and bear witness. iii. Everyone’s limbs will bear witness for or againts their owners. iv. One’s deeds. Singular of Shahadatain.

SHAHADATAIN: Bearing witness. In order to become a Muslim one must utter and believe in two Shahadas (Shahadatain): First Shahada: Ashhadu an la illa ill’allah. ( I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.) Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) The Shahadatain is the gateway to Islam and the gateway to the Garden. It is easy to say, but to act on it is a vast undertaking which has far-reaching consequenccs, in both inward awareness and outward action, in this world and in the next world. Continual affirmation of the Shahadatain is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.

SHAHAWAT: Desires and passion.

SHAHEED: Martyr in the cause of Allah Ta’ala. There have been many Shuhadaa in Islamic history, amongst whom are the following: Hamza, martyred at the Battle of Uhud in 4AH. Umar, Stabbed in Madinah on 27/12/23 AH. Uthman, axed at his home on 17/12/35 AH. Ali, stabbed while in Sajda on 17/9/40 AH. Hussein, martyred at the Battle of Karbulah (Iraq) om 9/1/61AH. Whoever is killed in the way of Allah goes straight to the Garden, may Allah be pleased with all of them. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):117-120. Plural: Shuhadaa.

SHAITAN: Satan. An evil Jinn who prompts mankind and Jinn to rebel againts Allah. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil that He has created. Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisa (4):117-120.

SHAJARA (ASH): A famous place near Madinah on the way to Makkah.

SHAKK WA ZANN (KUFR ASH): A major disbelief. Doubting any or all of the six artcles of faith (see ‘Aqaid). See Kufr.

SHAMS (ASH): "The Sun". Surah 91 of the Holy Qur’an.

SHAQI: Wretched in the sight of Allah, as opposed to Sai’d, which means blessed in the sight of Allah. See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):105.

SHARI’A: Islamic Law as ordained by Allah Ta’ala. Literally it means ‘a road’. The Sharia is the legal and social modality of people based on the revelation of their propeht. The last Shari’a in History is that of Islam. It abrogates all previous Shari’as. It is, being the last, therefore the easiest to follow, for it is applicable to the whole human race wherever they are.

SHAWAL: Tenth month of the Islamic Calendar. See Hijri.

SHAYATEEN: Devils. Plural of Shaitan.

SHIGHAR: A type of marriage which is forbidden where persons exchange daughters or sisters in marriage without giving Mahr (dowry).

SHIRK: Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. Shirk is idol-worship. Idol-worship means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like anything and cannot be conceived of or preceived. Allah the Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are threed types of Shirk: 1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into four categories: a. Shirk ad-Du’a - invoking or supplicating to a false deity besides Allah Ta’ala, i.e. invocation or supplication by either invoking other than Allah or invoking Him through a created being or thing, such as a prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a bank manager. b. Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd - having the intention and determination to deliberately do any type of act of worship to a deity other than Allah Ta’ala. c. Shirk at-Ta’a - Obeying any created being or an object more than Allah Ta’ala. 2. Shirk al-Asghar (Minor Shirk). a. Shir a-Rea’ - Carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praises. b. Shirk at-Tasmee’ swearing by other than Allah, and according relaying on other than Allah, or attaching more impotance to other than Allah. 3. Shirk al-Khafy (hidden Shirk) - being dissatisfied with what Allah has ordained for a particular person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly associate something or someone as partner with Him, especially one’s self.

SHU’AIB, PEACE BE UPON HIM: A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Madyan (Midian), but they rejected him, so Allah Ta’ala destroyed them with an earthquake. See Mursaleen. See Holy Qur’an, Al-A’raf (7);85-93, Houd 911):84-95.

SHUHADAA: Persons who die Fee Sabeeli’llah (in the path of Allah).. Allah has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone: They are the first to be forgiven. They are the first to see their place in Jannah They are exempted from ‘Adhabul-Qabr (trials and tribulations in the grave). They will be exempted from fear on the Day of Ressurection. They will crowned with the "Tajal-Waqar" (literally means "the crown of respect") on that Day. They will each be married to seventy-two "Houri’een" (see Hooriah). They will each be given permission to intercede on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from within them. Singular: Shaheed. See Shaheed.

SHURA (ASH): "The Consultation". Surah 42 of the Holy Qur’an.

SIDDIQ AND SADDIQEEN: The sincere and thruthful. The first and foremost followers of the prophets of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala, may the blessing and peace of Alllah be on them. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):69.

SIDR: Lotus tree.

SIDRAT AL-MUNTAHA: "The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the Seventh Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond which no cretaed being may pass. See Holy Qur’an, An-Najm (53):14-18.

SIFFIN: A place in Syria where in 36 AH, a famous battle between the followers of Ali, the Khalifa, and the followers supporting the claims of Mu’awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan took place byh the River Euphrates, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on whoever follows right guidance. A place near Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah.

SIJJIN: Comes from the root word ‘Sijjin, which means ‘prison’. Its exact nature is known to Allah Ta’ala alone. All that is revealed to us is that it is where the record of the evil doer is recorded; in contrast, the record of the righteous is kept in Illyou. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Mutafifeen (83): 7-9.

SIRAAT (AS): Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire) which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than the blade of asword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into Jahannam. Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the waiting Fire below. See Holy Qur’an, Mariam (19):71.

SIRATUL-MUSTAQEEM: Literally means "the straight path". The path that the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, demonstrated to mankind and the Jinn by way of the Holy Qur’an and Ahadeeth. The path that leads to the Garden.

SIRQ: Theft. One of the Kabair (major sins) in Islam. Allah Ta’ala has ordained that the hand that steals be severed, under certain circumtances.

SIRRI: Quiet recitation of the Holy Qur’an and during Salat, as in Duhr and ‘Asr Salat (prayers).

SIWAK: A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a tootbrush.

SOHT: Ill-gotten property or money. Forcing someone to part with their good or money through theft, coercion, embezzlement, usury or by any other means that will incur the wrath of Allah.

SUBH: "Morning". Another name for the first obligatory Salat (Prayer) which is performed at dawn. See Fajr.

SUBHAN ALLAH: Glory be to Allah. Far removed is He from anything imperfect associated with Him and far removed is He from anything unsuitable ascribed to Him!

SUBHANA RABBI AL-’ADHEEM: "Glory be to my Lord, the Greatest." This is said three times when one is in Ruku’ during Salat (prayers). See Rak’a.

SUBHANA RABBI AL-’ALA: "Glory be to my Lord, the Most high." This is said three times when one is in Sujud during Salat (prayers). See Sajda.

SUBHANA WA TA’ALA: "May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The shortened from of this glorification is "Allah Ta’ala".

SUFFA (AS): A shaded place in Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah bless him and grant him in peace, in Madinah where poor people used to take shelter.

SUHUR: A meal taken before fajr in the month of Ramadan

SUJUD: See Sajda.

SULIMAN, PEACE BE ON HIM: Solomon. A prophet of Islam and a wise king. He was the son of the Prophet (and king) Dawood (David), peace be on both of them. He ruled the north-western Arabian Peninsula for about forty years. Allah Ta’ala gifted him with many powers, which included having power over the winds, being able to converse with the birds and ants and other animals, and having power over the evil Jinn. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Anbiya (21):79-82, An-Naml 927):15-44, Saba (34):12-14, Saad (38):30-40.

SUNNAH: All traditions and practices of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that are recorded not only in such books as Sahi Bukhari and Sahi Muslims, but also in living people to whom these traditions and practices have been transmitted, from person to person, from then until now. Although the Sunnah has come to refer almost exclusively to the pratice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peae, it also comprises the customs of the first generation of Muslims in Madina. They learned their Islam directly from the Prophet, not from books, and transmitted what they had learned to the next generation. Thus they have become models who all Muslims should follow. The Sunnah is a complete behaviourial science that has been systematically kept outside the learning framework of this society. It cannot be learned from books, although books can be helpful. It can only be learned from real Muslims who are true teachers. Plural Sunnan.

SUNNAN: Plural of Sunnah. See Sunnah.

SURAH: A chapter of the Holy Qur’an. Literally means "a form". There are 114 Suwar in the Holy Qur’an. Plural; Suwar.

SUTRA: An object like a pillar, wall, stick or anything that is placed in front of a praying person so that people will pass beyond it and not ‘break’ his or her Qiblah and concentration.

SUWAR: Chapters. There are 114 Suwar in the Holy Qur’an. Singular: Surah.



Abu Said, may Allah be pleased with him, related that the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: "When the coffin is ready and is lifted by people onto their shoulders, then if it is that of a virtuous person it urges, ‘Take me ahead, take me ahead!’ If it is that of a non-virtuous person it says, ‘Damn it! Where are you taking me?’ It is a voice heard by everything except humans, and if they could hear it they would be struck unconscious." Saheeh Bukhari

Aisha,may Allah be pleased with her, related that the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to stand up so long during his voluntary prayers at night that the skin of his feet would become swollen. Therefore I said to him, "O Messenger ofAllah, why do you stand so long in prayer when Allah has forgiven all your past and future sins (if any)?" He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, "Then may I not become the most grateful servant of Allah?" Sahi Bukhri and Sahih Muslim Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, related that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: "Allah is kind and likes kindness in all things." Saheeh Muslims and Saheeh Bukhari.

TAGHABUN (AT): "Mutual Loss". Another name for the Final Hour. Surah 64 of the Holy Qur’an.

TA HA: "Ta Ha". Surah 20 of the Holy Qur’an.

TAWEEL: Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur’an.

TA’A: Obedience to Allah and performing good deeds.

TA’A (SHIRK AL): A major Shirk. Obeying any created being against the command of Allah. Beware of such Shirk! It is very easy to commit. See Shirk.

TA’AAM:Feeding the poor and the hungry.

TABAA: Another name for Madinah.

TAB’E: Follower. A muslim who has seen or met a Sahabi (a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and the peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him and them in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last Day). Plural; Tabi’een.

TABI’EEN: Plural of Tab’e. See Tab’e.

TABUK: A famous town 400 miles north of Madinah al-Munawarah close to Shamm. In 9Ah the Messenger of Allah, may Allah belss him and grant him peace, hearing that the Byzanitines were gathering a large army to march against the Muslims, led a large expedition to Tabuk, on what was to be his last campaign, only to find that the Byzantine army had withdrawn back into its own territory.

TAFSIR: A commentary. There are several reliable Tafsir on the meanings of the Ayaat of the Qur’an, including those of Ibn Kathir, Jalalayn and Al-Cortubi.

TAHAJJUD NAFL: Voluntary Salat (prayer) that is done any time at night between Salat al-Isha and Salat al-Fajr.

TAHARA: Purification. Tahara is accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g. (1). Souls--- in order for the soul to be pure one must submit one’s whole self to Alllah Ta’ala, i.e.e become a Muslim. (2). Bodies--- They are purified through Tayammum, Wudu or Ghusl, depending on the circumstances. For a full explanation: See Tayammum, Wudu and Ghusl. (3). Clothing. Three things indicate that clothes may be impure and need washing; a.) If they smell. b.) If they are wet and c) the cause of the wetness is either unknown or known to be impure or dirty if they are stained.

TAHIR: Pure, unsoiled. See Tahara.

TAHMEED: Reciting the words of praise to Allah Ta’ala, i.e. saying "Al-Hamdu lilahe Rabbil ‘Alameen" (Praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds").

TAHQIQ: Recitation of the Holy Qur’an in a very slow manner. This method is used only when learning or teaching Tajweed.

TAIF: A city fifty miles east of Mekkah, where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to preach after being rejected, beaten and nearly killed by the pagan Quraish of Makkah in the second year before Hijra. There too ,he suffered beatings and humiliation. On his return journey to Makkah, Allah Ta’ala revealed to him that although the people of Taif reject him, the Jinn had accepted him. It was then that Suratul Jinn (Surah 72) was revelaed to him.

TAJWEED: Recitation of the Holy Qur’an with precise articulation and exact intonation.

TAKATUR (AL): "The Race for Wordly Gains". Surah 102 of the Holy Qur’an.

TAKBIR: Saying "Allahu Akbar" ("Allah is the Greatest"). This is said when beginning the Salat and when changing from one one position to another during Salat (prayers).

TAFKIR: Charging someone with Kufr (disbelief in Allah). It is very dangerous for one Muslim to level the charge of Tafkir against another Muslim. If such an accusation is made, then one of them is a Kafir. If the accuser is correct in his accusation, then the accused is Kafir, but if the accusation is unfounded, then the accuser is a Kafir.

TAKTHEEB (KUFR AL): A major disbelief. It is defying the Divine Truth. See Kufr.

TAKWEER (AT): "The Overthrowing". Surah 81 of the Holy Qur’an.

TALAQ: "The Divorce". Surah 65 of the Holy Qur’an.

TALBIYAH:The call that the pilgrims make to their Lord of the Hajj, saying: "Labbaik, labbaik, Allahumma labbaik." ("I am totally at Your service,I am totally at your service,O Allah, i am totally at your service .") "la Shareeka laka labbaik." ("You have no partner, I am totally at Your service.") "Innal hamda wa n’imata laka wal mulk." ("Truly, the praise and the blessing are Yours, and the dominion.") "La Shareeka lak." ("You have no partners.")

TALUT: King saul. he led his army against the army of jalut (Goliath). See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):247-249.

TAM’: Avarice, greed.

TAMATA’A (HAJJ AL): "Interrupted Hajj". Umra, followed by Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these two stages. See Hajj.

TAN’IM: The place where Makkans put on their Ihram to perform an Umra or Hajj. It is a place just on the northern outskirts of Makkah. See Miqat

TAQLID: Garlanding sacrificial animals, especially during the Hajj. In reference to Fiqh, it means the following of previous authorities and the avoidance of Ijtihad.

TAQWA: Fear of Allah, being careful, knowing your place in the cosmos. Its proof is the experience of awe, of Allah, which inspires a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager for actions pleasing to Allah. Fearing Allah as He should be feared is one of the signs of being faithful Muslims. Piety and restarint (through Taqwa) in times of hardship are signs of having achieved the essence and spirit of Islam, and thus Allah’s blessing. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):102-103, Al-Hashr (59):18-19.

TAQWIM: Mould, Shape, form, etc. Allah Ta’ala created man in the best of forms, but then abased him to the lowest of the low. See Holy Qur’an, At-Teen (95):4-5.

TARAWEEH: Nafl Salat (prayers) that are done after Isha Salat during the month of Ramadan, in order to recite the Qur’an as fully as possible, or completely. They are usually done in congregation, but may also be done individually.

TARIQ (AL): "The Night Visitant". Surah 86 of the Holy Qur’an.

TARTEEL: Measured recitation of the Holy Qur’an taking extreme care with regard to the rules of slow reading, pausing and stopping at every point.

TARWIYA: Start of the Hajj. The 8th of Dhu’l Hijjah when the Hujjaj leave Makka and Set out to Mina.

TASBIHAT: Reciting the following: "Subhanallah" ("Glory be to Allah") 33 times, "Allahamdu Lillah" ("Praise be to Allah") - 33 times, and "Allahu Akbar" ("Allah is gratest") - 33 times followed by the Shahadatain once, after the end of each obligatory prayer.

TASDEEQ: Affirmation.

TASHAHHUD: Recitation the following silently while one is in Qu’ud (i.e. the sitting during Salat: "Attahiyatu lillahe was salawatu tayibat. Assalamu ‘alaika ya aiuhan wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuh. Wa assalamu ‘alaika ya aiuhan nabiu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatu. Wa assalamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibadillahe saleheen. Ashadu an la illaha illal lah. Wa ashadu anna Muhammadar rasoolu’llah." ("Greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all good. peace be on you o Prophet and the Mercy of Allah and His blessing. Peace be on us and the right-acting slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.") See Bukhari, Hadith 794, Vol. 1. During the final sitting in every Salat, recitation of the Tashahhud is followed by recitation of Salat al-Ibrahimiya. See Salatul-Janaza.

TASLEEM: The Muslims’ greeting. The action of turning one’s face to the right saying "Assalamu ‘Alaikum wa rahmatullah" ("Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah") and turning one’s face to the left and repeating the same words, ends every Salat (prayer).

TASNEEM: Name of a fountain in Jannahh (Paradise) whose drink is superior to the purest of wines. Its nectar will only be drunk by those nearest to Allah Ta’ala. Literally means "rich and elevated". See Holy Qur’an, Al-Al-Mutafifeen (83):27-28:

TAUBAH: (1). Returning to correct action after error, turning away from wrong action to Allah and asking His forgiveness, turning to face Allah whereas before one turned one’s back. (2). Name of one of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah. (3). "Repentance". Another name for Al-Baqaarah. Surah 9 of the Holy Qur’an.

TAWAF: The circling of the Holy Ka’ba. Tawaf is done in sets of seven circuits, after each of which it is necessary to pray two Rak’at, preferably at or near the Maqaam al-Ibrahim. See Tawaf al-Ifada.

TAWAF AL-IFADA: The Tawaf of the Ka’aba by the Hujjaj (pilgrims) after they come from Mina to Makka on the 10th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. This Tawaf is one of the Rukn (essential rites of both the Hajj and an Umra.

TAWAF AL-QUDUM: The ‘Tawaf on Arrival’, Tawaf of the Ka’aba that the pilgrim must do on first entering the Haram in Makka. It is one of the essential rites of both the Hajj and Umra.

TAWAF AL-WIDAA: The "Tawaf of Farewell’. The Tawaf of the Holy Ka’aba that every visitor to Makka should do before leaving Makkah. It should be connected directly to the trip of departure, and whoever is delayed and stays on afterwards should do it again. See Tawaf.

TAWAKUL ‘ALA’LLAH: Putting one’s complete faith in and reliance on Allah Ta’ala and no-one else. Depending on Allah Ta’ala every aspect of one’s life is the mark of true believer.

TAWHEED (AL): The Divine Unity, unity in its most profound sense. Allah is One in His Essence and His Attibutes and His Acts. The whole universe and what it contains is One unified event which in itself has no lasting reality. Allah is the Real, Al-Haqq. Although Allah is indivivisible and beyond conception, Tawheed can be viewed from four distinct perspectives: I. Tawheed Al-Rububiyah - Unity of Lordship. To percieve that there is only one Lord, the Master and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. II. Tawheed al-uluhiyah - Unity of Worship. To realize that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah "Wahdahu la Shareeka’lah ("Alone without partner"). III. Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat - Unity of names and Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. To comprehend that: None can qualify or name Allah except as He or Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, have named or qualified Him. None can be named or qualified with the Names or the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. For example, none may be called "Al-Muhyee" ("the Giver of Life") except Allah subhana wa Taa’ala Himself. We Must accept all the Ayat and Ahadeeth (Sahi) regarding the Attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever. For a full list of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala: IV. Tawheed all-Itabaa- Unity in following the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. To believe in and recite the words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah" ("I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah") and to follow the way of the Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in life and worship. It is only by following the way of Islam tha the true nature of Tawhid becomes apparent. Another name for Suratul Ikhlas.

TAYAMMUM (DRY PURIFICATION): Purification for prayer using clean dust, earth or stone, when water for Ghusl or Wudu is either unavailable or would be detrimental to helath. Strike the hand lightly on some clean earth, or rub the stone with the palms of the hands and forearms. Tayammum is broken by the same things that break Wudu. See Wudu.

TEEN: "The Fig". Surah 95 of the Holy Qur’an.

THAMUD: Successors to the people of ‘Ad. They lived in north-western Arabia between what is now known as Madinah and Syria. Their prophet was Saleh (peace be on him). Allah Ta’ala destroyed them with an earquake. See Holy Qur’an, Al-A’raf (7):73-79, Hud (11):61-68, Ash’Shu’araa (26):141-159, An-Naml (27):45-53, Az-Zariyat (51):43-45, Al-Qamar (54):23-31.

THANIK: Chewing a date then putting the juice into the mouth of a child. Sahi Bukhari, Book of Aqiqa, p. 272, Vol. 7.

THAUR: A famous cave three miles from Makka where Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Alllah be pleased with him, hid for three nights whilst the Quraish searched for them in vain. See Holy Qur’an, At-Taubah (9):40.

THAWAB: Spiritual reward given by Allah Ta’ala to good deeds performed by man and Jinn.

THUMMA: "Then", in the sense of "What happens next". There are four words that indicate the proximity of what follows next: Wa- and. Indicates that what is to follow will be most immediately afterwards. Fa - Then. Indicates that what is to follow will be relatively soon afterwards. E.g. "Idha ja anasrullahi wa’l-fath. Wa ra-aita nasa yadkhulouna fi deeni’lahi afwaja. Fasabbih bi hamdi rabbika was stagfirh; innahu kana tawwaba." (An-Nasr (110): ("When the help of Allah and victory come, and you see people entering deen of Allah in large numbers, then celebrate the praise of your Lord and Seek His forgiveness; surely He is always ready to show mercy." Where "and" is used, the events or actions linked by "wa" are virtually simultaneous. Where "then" is used, there is a little space of time between what happens before and after "fa", i.e only after you see people embrace the religion of Allah THEN celebrate the praise of your Lord AND seek forgiveness... Here praise is to be immediately followed by seeking forgiveness. Thumma - then. Indicates that what is to follow will come later. E.g. "Thummastawa ‘ala’l arsh..." (Yunus (10):3): Then He established Himself on the Throne..." After creating the heavens and the earth in six days’ (and a ‘day’ with Allah can be at least fifty thousand years of ‘our’ time), He then established Himself firmly on throne. Here the time lapse is six periods of time. See ‘Arsh. Saufa - not until then. Indicates that what is to follow will only occur after certain future events have occured. E.g. "Kalla saufa ta’lamoon" (At-Takatur (102): 3) ("Certainly then you shall know"). It is only when you die that you really find out. It will not be until then that you will come to know. "Then". used to emphasize a point. E.g. "Thumma Kalla saufa ta’lamoon.’ (At-Takathur (102):4) ("Certainly THEN you will know.") This is only a meagre explanation of a single word. The Holy Qur’an had 77, 934 words and every word has a depht which even an ocean cannot reach. What a miracle, and yet the unbelievers say that this book is not from Allah! How they delude themselves!

TILAWAT (OF THE HOLY QUR’AN): This word has variety of meanings, depending on the context: (1). Studying the Qur’an in order to understand it in the way should be undestood. See Al-Baqara (2):121. (2). Mediating and reflecting in the Qur’an’s meanings in order to enrich one’s life and knowledge. (3). Reading and reciting the Qur’an by oneself. (4). Reading and reciting and conveying its meaning to others. (5). Approaching and acting on the Qur’an in such a way that it becomes part of one’s inner self, thus helping one to attain perfect prayer and to avoid any form of evil or shameful deeds and to be an upright person in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. See Holy Qur’an, Al-’Ankaboott (29):45.

TOOR: "The Mount". Toori Sineen is the original name of Mount Sinai, on which the Prophet Musa (Moses) received the revelation of the Torah from Allah. Surah 52 of the Holy Qur’an.

TULAQAAH: The people who embraced Islam on the day of the conquest of Makkah by the Holy Prophet and his companions, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, in 8AH.



O you who believe! You are in charge of your selves. Whoever errs cannot injure you if you are rightly guided. Unto Allah you will all return; and then He will tell you about what you used to do. Al-Maida (5):105

Surely Allah has bought from the believers their selves and their wealth, because the Garden will be theirs. They will fight in the way of Allah, and they will kill and be killed. This is the true promise made by Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. And who is more true to his promise than Allah? Rejoice then in the bargain that you have made; for that is the supreme triumph. At-Taubah (9):111

O You who believe! What ails you when it is said to you"Go forth in the way of Allah" that you are bowed down to the ground with heaviness? Do you desire the life of the world rather than the hereafter? The comfort of the life of the world is but little in the Hereafter. At-Taubah (9):38

O man! What has made you careless concerning your Lord, the Bountiful? Al-Infitar (82):6.

UHUD: A mountain just outside Madina, much loved by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the foot of which Muslims fought their second major battle against the pagan Qur’aish of Makka in 3AH. The Qur’aish army of 3,000 men, under the leadership of Abu sufyan, attacked the Muslim army about 700-1000 men. The battle went well at first, some fifty archers disobeyed the Prophet Muhammad and left their posts, leaving the Muslims open to an attack from their rear; and secondly, there was treachery on the part of some 300 Munafiqeen (hypocrites) led by ‘Abdallah ibn Ubai, who deserted the Muslims during the battle. Many great companions, and in particular the uncle of the Prophet, Hamza, ‘the lion of Allah’, were killed in this battle. See Bani Nadheer. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):121-128, 140-180.

ULAMAA: Also spelled as ‘Ulamaa. Plural of ‘Alim. The people of knowlegde from amongst the Muslims who act on what they know and do what they say.

ULIL ‘AMR: Muslims who are in charge or in authority, or who are leaders. The Muslims are ordered to obey all their commands as long they do not contradict the commandments of Allah Ta’ala and the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nisaa (4):59.

ULUHIYAH (TAWHEED AL): Unity of Worship. to believe that none has the right to be worshipped bu Allah "Wahdahu La Shareeka’Lah" ("Alone without partner"). See Tawheed.

UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM: Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Second of the four "Al-Khulafaa ar-Rashideen", the Rightly Guided Khalifas, the other three being. 1). Abu Barkr as-Siddiq 3).Uthman ibn ‘Affan. 4). Ali Abi Talib. May Allah be pleased with all of them. Umar was renowned for his fairness and strength, and for his refusal to compromise the teachings of Islam in any way. He was the Khalifaa from 13AH to 23AH. he asked for martyrdom in the way of Allah in Madina, and his request was answered. Umar died after being stabbed in the stomach while doing the dawn prayer in the Mosque of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

UMM-ME: An unlettered person. This term is used in the Qur’an to describe the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who could neither read nor write and who never received any formal education. To the unbeliever here is food for thought: how could and illiterate man have brought such a completely perferct book (the Holy Qur’an), perfect in its meaning, message, grammar and overall content, if it were not with divine help? No other book exists on earth that has such perfect content and structure. A challenge to all unbeleivers! Mankind and Jinn? Assemble together and try to produce just one Surah (chapter) like it. You will never be able to do it, even if you were to try until the Day of Ressurrection you will not succeed! No created being has ever been or ever will be able to meeet this challenge, for the Holy Qur’an is truly the Book of Allah. Plural: Ummiyeen. See Khatam Anbiyaaa.

UMMAH: Community or nation. The body of the Muslims as one distinct and integrated community. The Ummah of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, refers to every Ins wal Jinn (mankind and Jinn) born after the final message was revealed through the Holy Prophet Muhammad who have embraced Islam. The Ummah of Muhammad, may the Blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his community (those who have lived in the past, those who are alive now and those who will live in the future), can be subdivided into two groups: a). Ummat ad-Da’wa - the nation that was called upon to believe in Allah Ta’ala and the Last Day. b). Ummat al-Isteajaba - the nation that reponded to the call of Muhammad. Another name for this Ummah is "Al-Ummat al-Islamiah" ("the Islamic Nation"). Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala commanded the Ummat al-Isteajaba to hold together and not to disagree. Ufortunately, this decree has been ignored, and in fulfilment of the Last Messenger’s prophecy, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, there are now 73 different groups of Muslims, only one of whom possesses and protects the original teachings of Islam as brought and embodied by him.

UMMIYEEN: Unlettered persons. Singular: Umm-me. See Umm-me.

UMMUL MUMINEEN: Mother of the Faithful. A title to each wives of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may the blessing and peace of Allah be on him and his family.

UMRA: A Pilgrimage to Makkah, but not during the Hajj period. It is also called "the Lesser Pilgrimage". Umra consists of four steps: Put on the Ihram at the pointed Miqat station. Then proceed to Makka reciting the Talbiyah (aloud for men and quitely for Women). See Ihram, Miqat, Talbiyah. (1). Do Tawaf of the Ka’ba seven times. Druing the Tawaf one may do any Du’a (and in any language) to Allah Ta’ala if one wishes. But remember to point the palm of the right hand and say "Allahu Akbar" at the start of each circuit. Each circuit starts and ends at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone). See Tawaf, Du’a. (2). Go to Safa and start the Sa’i to Marwa. The Sa’i consists of wlaking between Safa and Marwa seven times (each direction is considered as one time).Men must must Jog between two prescribed points. (3). Shave or trim the hair after the completion of the Sa’i. It is then permissible to change out of Ihram. (2). Synonym for Ruqba. See Ruqba.

URFUT: Also spelled as ‘Urfut’. The tree whose fruit is Maghafir, forgiveness.

USUL-FIQH: Principles of Islamic Law, drawn from the original fundamental primary sources.

UTHMAN IBN ‘AFFAN, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM: One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was the third of the four Rightly guided Khalifaas (Al-Khulafaa ar-Rashideen). He ruled from 24AH to 36AH. He was martyred at his home by the supporters of Abdallah ibn Sabaa, the infamous Jew who pretended he had become a Muslim in order to cause discord between Uthman and the Muslim Ummah by creating a new and false sect within Islam. See Khalifaa.



Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, related: "Once the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, returned from a journey after I had hung a curtain with pictures on it, along a platform in front of my room. On seeing this curtain the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, defaced the pictures on it; signs of anger were visible on his face , and he said, ‘Aisha, on the Day of Judgement, those who make pictures of Allah’s creatures will be subjected to the severest punishment." Saheeh Muslim and Saheeh Bukhari

Umar ibn Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, related: "Once some prisoners were brought before the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Among them was a woman who was running worriedly here and there, probably searching for her missing child. When she found the child, she took it up in her lap, drew it close and suckled it. The Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to his companions, ‘ Can you imagine this woman ever throwing her child into the fire?’ We said, ‘By Allah, no.’ At this, the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah is more kind towards his servants than the woman towards her child.’ " Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim.

Abu Yazan, May Allah be pleased with him, related that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said; "The lenght of his Salat (prayers) and the conciseness of his sermon demonstrates a person’s intelligence and wisdom. Therefore, let your prayers be long and your sermon brief." Saheeh Muslim.

WA ‘ALAYKUM ASSALAM: "And you be peace." The reply to the Muslim greeting of "assalamu ‘alaikum" ("Peace be upon you").

WA’D: Promise. "Wa’d Allah Haqqa" ("the Promise of Allah is true").

WAHY: Revelation. Inspiration placed in the heart or mind of the Prophets by Allah Ta’ala. Auha, Uhiya and Wahyu are derived from the same root, ‘Wahy’.

WAILUN: (1). Literally means "Woe be upon you". (2). Name of a pit in Hellfire.

WAJH: Literally means "face", but may have other meanings according to its context in the sentence, e.g. (1). Wajhahu - "his whole self", as in Al-Baqara (2):112. (2). Wajhulah - "the Glory or Presence of Allah", as in Al-Baqara (2):115. 3. Li-Wajhi’llahi - "for the sake of Allah", as in Al-Insan (76):8.

WALEE: A guardian, a person who has responsibility for another person; used particularly for the person who ‘gives’ a woman in marriage. Also someone who is a ‘friend’ of Allah, one of the Sabiqoon and Muqarraboon. Singular of Awliyaa. See Awaliyaa.

WALIMA: A Marriage banquet.

WAQF: Endowment. A charitable trust in the name of Allah, usually in perpetuity, and usually for the purpose of establishing the Deen of Islam, teaching useful knowledgee, feeding the poor or treating the sick.

WAQI’A (AL): "The Inevitable Event". Another name for the Final Hour. Surah 56 of the Holy Qur’an. The Khalifah Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, was in the midst of reciting this Surah when he was murdered.

WASAYA: Wills and testament. Bequests. Allah Ta’ala commands us to make a bequest of our goods to our parents and next of kin. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):180. The exact manner of distribution of one’s goods is complicated and therefore should be studied very carefully before writing out one’s will. Basically one can bequeath up to one-third of one’s property to whomever one wishes, but the remaining two-thirds must be divided between one’s surviving relatives in fixed shares, as delineated by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Singular: Wasaya.

WASIL (AL): A person who is kind and considerate to his kith and kin.

WASILA (AL): The highest station with Allah on the Last Day, reserved for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

WASHM: Tattoo mark. It is forbidden for a Muslim to have a tattoo on his or her body. Wasm - Tattoo.

WATHANI: A pagan. A person who worships idols, stones, graves, trees, persons, angels or any other deity other than Allah Ta’ala.

WISAAL: Fasting for more than one day continuously without taking Suhur or Iftar. Thi is forbidden in Islam.

WITR: A Salat which has an odd number of Rak’at: two Rak’at, followed by one Rak’a. This Salat is prayed last thing at night before one goes to sleep, or else delayed and prayed at the end of the Tahajjud Salat by those who rise in the night, seeking the pleasure and the face of Alllah Ta’ala.

WUDU: A ritual washing with water alone to be pure for the prayer. The way to do Wudu is: (1). Wash hands thrice. (2). Wash mouth thrice. (3).Wash nostril thrice. (4). Wash face thrice. (5). Wash right forearm thrice. (6). Wash left forearm thrice. (7). Wipe scalp and nape of neck and then ears once, (or twice or thrice). (8). Wash right foot thrice. (9). Wash left foot thrice. Once or twice is also allowed. See holy Qur’an, An-Nisa (4):43, Al-Ma’idah (5):7. You must already be in Ghusl for Wudu to be effective. You should ensure that your private parts and underclothes are clean before doing Wudu. Once you have done Wudu you remain in Wudu until it is broken by: Any of the conditions which make it necessary to have a Ghusl. See ghusl. Emission of impurities from the private parts: Urine, faeces, wind, prostatic fluid, or other discharge. Loss of consciousness by whatever means: usually by sleep or fainting. Physical contact between man and woman where sexual pleasure is either intended or experienced. Touching your penis with the inside of your hands or fingers. Leaving Islam. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to do Tayammum under certain circumtances) to do the Salat (prayer) and to hold a copy of the Qur’an. See Tayammum.

WUQUF: Stopping places, particularly the stopping places at Arafah and Muzdalifah during the Hajj. Singular: Mawqif.

WUSTA: Middle. Salatul Wusta refers to the middle prayer, which is the ‘Asr prayer (the third of the five compulsary prayers), for those whose day begins at dawn. However, some say it refers to the Fajr prayer. This is because the Muslims follow a lunar calendar: the first day of a new lunar month is only determined when the new moon is sighted shortly after sunset. Therefore the Muslim day begins at Maghreb, and the first prayer of the new day is Maghreb, which makes the third (middle) prayer Fajr.



O you who believe ! If you keep your duty to Allah, He will give you discrimination (between right and wrong) and will rid you of your evil thoughts and deeds, and will forgive you. Allah is of Infinite Bounty. Al-Anfaal (8):29.

O Mankind! Fear your Lord. Surely the earthquake of the Hour (of Doom) is a trememdous thing. On the day when you behold it, every nursing mother will forget her nursing and every pregnant one will be delivered of her burden, and and you will see mankind as if they were drunk, yet they will not be drunk, but the Doom of Allah will be strong (upon them). Al-Hajj (22):1-2.

Every self shall taste death. And surely you will be paid on the Day of Resurrection only what you have earned. Whoever is removed from the Fire and is made to enter Paradise is indeed successful. The life of this world is only an illusory comfort. Aali ‘Imran (3):185.

You will not attain righteousness until you give of that which you love. Aali ‘Imran 30:92.

YA SIN: "Ya Sin". Surah 36 of the Holy Qur’an.

YACOUB, PEACE BE UPON HIM: Jacob, A prophet of Islam. He was also known as Israel. His twelve sons each became head of their own tribe and these were known as the twelve tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of Ishaaq, who was the son of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on them.

YAHOUD: The Jews. This term is correctly used to describe the three tribes of Israel - the tribes of Juda, Levi and Benjamin - who after the twelve tribes had escaped from Egypt with Moses, peace be on him, and settled in the Holy Land, seperated from the other tribes of Israel (who were known as the Israelites) and became known as the Judahites. The Term ‘Judahite’ was shortened to ‘Judean’, which was then eventually shortened to ‘Jew’. The judahite Jews re-wrote and altered the Torah several times and formulated the Talmud (incorporating the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Gemara ,the Babylonian Gemara and the Madrash), and their religion became known as Judaism. ‘Yahoud’ is the Arabic equivalent of ‘Judahite’. It is clear, therefore, that the term "yahoud’ can only really be correctly used to describe the Middle Eastern and Sephardhic Jews; and can only be loosely applied to the Ashkenazim Jews who are descendants from the Turkic Russian tribe of the Khazars who embraced Judaism in the seventh century, but who were not originally descendants from any of the twelve tribes of Israel. It is for this reason that some commentators identify the Ashkenazim Jews with ‘Jew wa Majewj’ , Gog and Magog, (since they are ‘Jews’, but not Judahite Jew), about whom it is prophesied in Ezekiel 38-39 that they will come from their place in the far north (Russia), helped by many nations, and attack the land of Israel, and that eventaully there will be a mighty battle in which they will all be destroyed.

YAHYA, PEACE BE UPON HIM: John the Baptist, A prophet of Islam. Son of the Prophet Zakaria and Al-Yasaabat (Elizabeth), and the maternal cousin of Mariam (mary), Mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them. He was therefore a cousin of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), Son of Mariam (Mary). He was sent by Allah Ta’ala to prepare the way for the Prophet isa. The Prophet Yahya was imprisoned, then later beheaded by Herod in order to prove his infatuation for a dancing girl (his niece). It is unfortunate that Nasara (Christians) choose to call him John, because the name Yahya has a special place in history. He was the man ever to be called Yahya. See Holy Qur’an, Aali ‘Imran (3):39, Al-An’am (6):85, Maryam (19):12-15, Al-Anbiya (21):90-91.

YALAMLAM: The Miqat of the people of Yemen. See Miqat.

YAQEEN: Certainty. Faith in general is based on the Yaqeen of the believer. It has three stages: (1). Ilm al-Yaeen - Knowledge of certainty. (2). Ayn al-Yaqeen - Source of certainty. (3). Haqq al-Yaqeen - Truth of certainty. The Raja of Mahmudabad defined them thus in this metaphor.(1). You are told there is a fire in the forest. (2). You reach the fire in the forest and see it for yourself. (3). You are the fire in the forest. See holy Qur’an,Al-hijr (15):99.

YARHAMUKU’LLAH: "Allah Ta’ala’s mercy be on you." This is the usual response to a sneezer when he says "Alhamdu lillah" (Praise to Allah") after sneezing.

YARMUK: A place in Shaam. Site of a famous battle.

YASALOUNA: "They ask."

YATAMA: Orphans. Singular: Yateem . See Yateem.

YATEEM: Orphan. It is major sin to harm, abuse or cheat orphans in any way whatsoever. Allah Ta’ala will give a great reward to anyone who takes care of orphans. Plural: Yatama. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):220, An-Nisa (4):2,6, 10, 127, Al-Isra (17):34.

YATHRIB: One of the names of Al-Madinah before the coming of Islam.

YAUM AL-JAZA: Literally means the Day of Payment. Another name for the day of Judgement, when mankind and Jinn will be paid what is due to them, either by being sent to Jannah (Paradise) or to Nar (Hellfire).

YAUM AL-QIAMA: Literally means the Day of Standing. This is the Day when we will be raised from our graves and will stand while waiting to be judged by Allah Ta’ala. This day has many names, including: (1.) Al-Qari’a (Day of Clamour). (2.) Al-Taama al-Kubra (The Complete Covering). For a complete list of the names and description of the Yaum al-Qiama.

YUNUS, PEACE BE UPON HIM: "Jonah" or "Jonas". A Prophet of Islam. He was sent to the city of Nineveh (on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite the city of Mosul, in Iraq, to preach against their wickedness and call them to the worship of Allah. The people of Nineveh at first rejected him, but when he pronounced the curse of Allah upon them, repented their sins. However, he still left the city in anger, forgetting that Allah is full of mercy, as well as forgiveness. As a punishment, Allah Ta’ala caused a whale to swallow him up for a limited time. In the darkness of the whale's stomach, in the darkness of the ocean, in the darkness of the night, Yunus turned to his Lord and asked for His forgiveness. The whale spewed him up on the beach and, after recovering from his ordeal, Yunus returned to the city whose inhabitants all became his followers. He then came to be known as Dhu'l-Noon (man of the whale). See Holy Qur'an, As-Saffa (37):139-149. Surah 10 of the Holy Qur'an.

YUSUF, PEACE BE ON HIM:  "Joseph". A Prophet of Islam. One of the sons of Yacoub (Yacob), peace be on them. Surah 12 of the Holy Qur'an.



Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the difference between the night and the day are signs (of His Soverignty) for people of understanding, those who remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining and who reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth (and say), "Our Lord! You did not created this in vain. Glory be to You! so preserve us from the doom of the fire. Our Lord! Whomever You cause to enter the Fire, him indeed You have confounded, and for evildoers there will be no helpers. Our Lord! Surely we have heard a crier calling unto faith: ‘Believe in your Lord!’ So we have believed. Our Lord! Therefore forgive us our sins and rid us of our evil deeds and make us die the death of the righteous. Our Lord! And give us what You have promised to us through Your Messengers. Confound us not upon the Day of Ressurection. Surely You do not break Your promise." Aali Imran (3):190-194.

ZA’AMA: Allegation.

ZABOOR: Holy Book revealed to the prophet Dawood (David), peace be on him.

ZAID: Zaid ibn Haritha was one of the first people to accpet Islam. He was a freeman of the Prophet Muhammad,may Allah bless him and grant him peace. For furfuher information See Zaid ibn Haritha. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Ahzab (33):28, 37-38, 50. See Zaid.

ZAKARIA, PEACE BE ON HIM: The Prophet Zachariah. A prophet of Islam. He looked after Maryam, the mother of Jesus, in the Temple of Solomon, when she was a child. He was the father of the Prophet Yahya, peace be on them all.

ZAKAT: The Muslim’ wealth tax: One must pay 2.5 % of one’s yearly savings above certain amount to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat Gold at the time when the annuaal Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For a full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara (2):43, 110, 177, 277, An-Nisa (4):162, Al-Maida (5):58. See Bukhari, Book of Zakat. See Muslim, Book of Zakat. Zakat is one of the Arkan of Islam. See Arkan.

ZAKAT AL-FITR: A small obligatory head-tax imposed on every reponsible Muslim who has the means for himself and his dependents. It is paid once yearly at the end of Ramadan before Eid al-Fitr. See Sahi Bukhari, Kitabul Zakatul Fitr. See Sahi Muslim, Ahadeeth, 2159, 2160.

ZALLAH: A major error, e.g. unintentional backbiting. Generally speaking, a person seeks Allah’s forgiveness immediately after realizing that he or she has committed a Zallah.

ZALZALAH (AL): "The Earthquake". One of the names of the Yaum al-Qiama. Surah 99 of the Holy Qur’an.

ZAMZAM: The sacred well inside Al-Haram ash-Shareef in Makkah.

ZANAADIQA: Complete and utter unbelievers in Allah and the Last Day. Atheist.

ZANJABIL: A special mixture that will be in one of the drinks of the people of the Jannah (Paradise). See Holy Qur’an, Al-Insan (76):17.

ZAQQUM: An extremely bitter and thorny tree that grows at the bottom of Hellfire. See Holy Qur’an, Al-ISra (17):60, As-Saffat (37):62-66, Ad-Dukhan (44):43-46, Al-Waqi’ah (56):56

ZEENA: (1). Allurements of the worlds. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Kahf (18):46 (2). Beauty and ornaments of Woman. See Holy Qur’an, An-Nur (24):31.

ZINAH: Fornication and adultery, i.e. sexual intercourse between partners who are not married to each other. One of the Kabair (major sins) in Islam. Allah Ta’ala has prescribed flogging (100 lashes) and year’s exile for either a man or a woman who commits Zinah and is not married. Although it is not expressly stated in the Qur’an, the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made it clear that a married man or woman who commits Zinah is to be stoned to death. Similarly, homosexuals and lesbians in a Muslim community are put to death. These measures protect the cohesion of the family, and accordingly of the community as whole. See Holy Qur’an An-Nur (24):2-10.

ZINDEEQ: Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.

ZOOR: Giving false evidence. The act of committing perjury.

ZUKKHRUFF (AL): "The gold Ornaments". Surah 43 of the Holy Qur’an.

ZUMMAR (AL): "The Troops". Surah 39 of the Holy Qur’an.